Neurochemistry is a vitally important academic discipline that contributes to our understanding of molecular, cellular, and medical neurobiology. As a field, neurochemistry focuses on the role of the chemical entities that build the nervous system, the function of neurons and glial cells in health and disease, aspects of cell metabolism and neurotransmission, and degenerative processes and aging of the nervous system. Accordingly, this book contains chapters on a variety of topics related to the neurochemical basis of brain function and dysfunction. The volume is organized into four chapters: I. The Chemical Basis of Neural Function and Dysfunction; II. Synaptic Transmission and Amino Acid Neurotransmitters; III. Trends of Protein Aggregation in Neurodegenerative Diseases; IV. Targeting the NO/cGMP/CREB Phosphorylation Signaling Pathway in Alzheimer's Disease. Chapters contain comprehensive reviews of these different areas written by experts in their respective fields. This book is a valuable resource for neurochemists and other scientists alike. In addition, it contributes to the training of current and future neurochemists and, hopefully, will lead us on the path to curing some of the biggest challenges in human health.