This Qurʼan, originally from a private library in Damascus, is one of the most important and oldest specimens of the early Qurʼanic tradition held in a Western library. The short vowels are marked by red points below, beside, and above the relevant consonant. There is already some use of diacritical points to differentiate between otherwise identical consonants. The manuscript shows the system of separating the verses, which originated in the eighth century, and which is still in use today: marked by rosettes, circles, squares, and so forth. By comparison with other manuscripts, which use an older system of verse separation, and because of the lack of differentiation of consonants by diacritical points, we can assume that this Qurʼan originated in the ninth century.
Descrizione fisica: 198 folios, parchment ; 24 x 32 centimeters